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Comprehensive guide to Continuous Integration with Cordova apps

Updated: 9/10/2015

With the release of Visual Studio 2015, you now have a number of options for how you can integrate Cordova apps with your favorite team / continuous integration (CI) server thanks to the fact that projects created in Visual Studio are standard Apache Cordova Command Line Interface (CLI) projects. In this tutorial, we will cover a few different approaches for building Cordova projects outside of Visual Studio.

For abridged informaiton on specific build systems, you may find the Visual Studio Team Services Extension for Cordova useful along with the following tutorials:

Read these articles to get up and running quickly!

This remainder of this article will go through the general approach for tackling a number challenges that exist when building Cordova apps and cover what the Visual Studio Team Services Extension for Cordova and taco-team-build node module effectively does behind the scenes.

Note Team Foundation Services 2013 cannot easily take advantage of the workflow described here (though 2015 can) as it is MSBuild based. See the Team Foundation Services 2013 tutorial for details.

What to Add to Source Control

On the surface, this seems like all files in a given Cordova project should be added to source control. However, to avoid unexpected issues, we recommend excluding the following files and folders from source control.

  • The following folders should be excluded:
    • platforms
    • bld
    • bin
    • .vs
  • The following files should be excluded:
    • plugins/android.json
    • plugins/windows.json
    • plugins/wp8.json
    • plugins/ios.json
    • plugins/remote_ios.json
    • changeList.json
    • *.suo
    • *.jsproj.user

Troubleshooting Tip: Adding plugins/android.json, plugins/ios.json, plugins/remote_ios.json, plugins/windows.json, or plugins/wp8.json adding these files to source control can result in a build that appears to succeed but is missing plugin native code. They should only be included if the "platforms" folder is also checked in. Simply remove these files from source control to resolve the issue. Note that you can add "plugins/fetch.json" to source control along with the rest of the contents of the plugins folder. See our Issues, Tips, and Workarounds documentation for additional tips on addressing common build issues.

Installing Dependencies

Cordova builds require that a number of dependencies be properly installed and configured on the system. However, exactly which dependencies are required varies based on the Cordova "platform" (Android, iOS, Windows and Windows Phone 8.1/10, Windows Phone 8.0) you want to build.

Installing Visual Studio 2015 with the Tools for Apache Cordova option will automatically install these dependencies but you will still need to configure some of the environment variables by hand for Android. See Build Apache Cordova apps with Visual Studio Team Services or Team Foundation Services 2015 for a summary of these variables. Also note that the Hosted pool in Visual Studio Team Services is pre-configured for use as are agents in MacinCloud's Visual Studio Team Services plan.

Otherwise you can manually install only those dependencies that are needed for building the platforms you are interested in.

  1. Install Node.js and make sure it is available to the system user you intend to have run your builds. The Visual Studio Team Services Extension for Cordova also works with TFS and automatically ensures the correct version of Node.js is used for a given version of Cordova. Otherwise the version of Node.js required will vary based on the Cordova version:

    1. Cordova < 5.3.3 - Node 0.12.9 or lower
    2. Cordova 5.3.3 - 5.4.0 - Node 4 or lower
    3. Cordova > 5.4.0 - Node 0.12.x, 4, or 5

    Node 0.12.9 is currently compatible with all Cordova versions and is therefore a safe bet. You may want to consider downloading a non-installer based version of Node.js from its distribution archive if you need access to more than one and will not be using VS Team Services or TFS 2015.

  2. Install the platform specific dependencies on the server and make them available to this same user. See the following guides for details:

    1. Android Platform Guide. A few notes:

      • You do not need to install Android Studio or Eclipse. Instead you may download and install one of the "SDK Tools Only" packages.
      • When building, you may encounter an error telling you that you need to install specific SDK versions or tools depending on the version of Cordova you are using. Note that these messages are talking about the tools and SDK versions not the device target versions.

        • You can install additional SDKs using the Android SDK Manager.
        • Note that only the "SDK Platform" is required for a given API level so you may uncheck other options. Android system images in particular are large and are not needed.
        • Be sure to also install the "platform tools"
        • Projects created using Visual Studio will typically use either the API SDK 19, 21, 22, or 23.
    2. OSX only: iOS Platform Guide. You do not need to install the deployment tools mentioned.

    3. Windows only:

      1. Windows (and Phone) 8.1/10 Platfrom Guide
      2. Legacy Windows Phone 8.0 Platform Guide

Internet Access & Proxy Setup

If your build server is running in a datacenter, it may be very locked down and not have unrestricted access to the Internet. Due to dynamic acquistion requirements, you will need to allow the build servers to access the following domains:

  • npm:
  • GitHub:
  • Apache ASF Git:
  • https://*

If you need to use a proxy, you will need to configure both npm and Git command line tools to use them. Open a command prompt on Windows or the Terminal app on OSX and type the following:

npm config set proxy http://<username>:<password>@<host>
npm config set https-proxy http://<username>:<password>@<host>
git config --global http.proxy http://<username>:<password>@<host>

...where "<username>:<password>@" is optional and should contain the appropriate user name and password for proxy access while <host> is the correct proxy host and port (ex:

You may also need to configure proxy settings for Java. This can be accomplished via the Java control panel (reccomended) or by setting an environment variable as the follows:

JAVA_OPTS="-Dhttps.proxyHost=<host> -Dhttps.proxyPort=<port> -Dhttp.proxyHost=<host> -Dhttp.proxyPort=<port> -DproxySet=true"

Finally, if you see the error "TypeError: Request path contains unescaped characters" when building or installing a plugin you may need to either upgrade to a recent version of Node just (like Node 4 if your Cordova version allows it) or downgrade Node.js 0.10.29. See tips and workarounds for additional details.

iOS/OSX Gotchas: Troubleshooting Tips for Building on a Mac

There are a few relativley common issues when building a Cordova app on OSX related to permissions that are worth noting.

  1. You are seeing permission errors from "npm": If you are seeing permission errors from "npm," you may be running into a situation where the build agent user's cache folder (~/.npm) is inaccessible. Generally this occurs if the folder or some of its contents was created while running as an administrator (sudo). Fortunately this is easy to resolve:

    1. Log into OSX with the user that installed and set up the cross-platform agent
    2. Open the Terminal app and type:

      sudo npm cache clear
    3. Next, type:

      sudo chown -R `whoami` ~/.npm
  2. You checked in the "hooks" folder from Windows and are seeing "spawn EACCES" errors: If you encounter a "spawn EACCES" error when building on a Mac or Linux, be sure all files in the hooks folder to have an "execute bit" set as this a requirement for Cordova. To resolve, add an execute bit to the files in source control or execute a set of chmod commands as a part of your build script. Ex:

    chmod +x <file name goes here>

    This is commonly seen with Ionic due to the hook in hooks/after_prepare.

  3. You checked in the "platforms" folder from Windows and are seeing permission errors: You should not run into this situation if you are using the Visual Studio Team Services Extension for Cordova, but if you are seeing errors that are originating from files in your project's "platforms" folder, the root cause may be that you checked in shell scripts under the "platforms/android/cordova" or "platforms/ios/cordova" folders from Windows. This is because the NTFS file system has no concept of an "execute bit" that is required to run these from OSX. (The contents of the platforms is generally not intended for checked in and by default are excluded from Cordova projects in Visual Studio as a result.)

    For example, this error is saying the "version" script is not executable:

    [17:41:57] Error:
    /Users/vsoagent/vsoagent/agent/work/build/b424d56537be4854de825289f019285698609afddf826d5d1a185eb60b806e47/repo/tfs-vnext test/platforms/android/cordova/version:
    Command failed with exit code EACCES

To resolve this problem you have two options:

  1. Don't check in the contents of the "platforms" folder into source control. This is by far the path of least resistance. The Gulp build script can add them at the time you build.
  2. If you absolutely must check in the contents of the platforms folder from Windows, you can craft a shell script to set the execute bits on these files and include it as a part of your build process. There is a Cordova hook based version of this script available in the tips and workarounds section.

    1. Signing suddenly stopped working for iOS on Feb 14th, 2016. Apple's WWDR certificate expired on Feb 14th and as a result you may experience signing failures if you have not updated the cert and removed the old one. Follow the steps outlined by Apple under What should I do if Xcode doesn’t recognize my distribution certificate? to resolve the problem. Note that this also affects development certs despite the title.

Behind the Scenes: Basic Workflow

In general, we reccomend following one of the tutorials above. Each build server technology is a bit different and in this article we will focus on the general steps required to build a Cordova app regardless of technology using the Cordova Command Line Interface.

The basic flow for building a Cordova app is simple on the surface:

  1. Check the project out from source control

  2. Add the platforms you want to build to the project using the "cordova platform add" command. Ex:

    cordova platform add android
  3. Build the project using the "cordova build" command:

    cordova build android --release

The Cordova CLI is node.js based, so these exact same steps can be run from Windows or an OSX machine or from a cloud hosted VM like MacInCloud. See the Cordova CLI documentation for additional details.

Exactly how these steps are executed will vary depending on your build server. However, there are a number of challenges that may not be immediately obvious when setting up an automated build environment. This are article will describe some techniques for dealing with these common problems.

A Note on TypeScript

Unlike Visual Studio, it's important to note that the base Cordova CLI does not itself automatically compile TypeScript code. If you are using a build language like Gulp or Grunt, there are convenient plugins that you can use to compile your TypeScript code. Otherwise there is also a node.js based command line utility that works both on Windows and OSX. See the following links for additional details:

Behind the Scenes: Resolving Common Cordova Challenges

When building Cordova projects in a server environment, there are a number of challenges you may encounter. If you are looking for a quick solution you should consider the Visual Studio Team Services Extension for Cordova or the Gulp tutorial as they are specifically designed to help resolve these problems regardless of build system. If you're interested in understanding what is going on behind the scenes, read on.

The challenges are as follows:

  1. Building with Multiple Versions of the Cordova CLI. While in an ideal world everyone would use the edge version of the Cordova CLI and associated platforms, the reality is that for a given build server you will want to use multiple versions of the Cordova CLI. This means that the common practice of installing Cordova globally will not work.

  2. Adding Cordova Platforms. As of Cordova 6.0.0, the "cordova platform add" CLI command still needs to be explicitly run to build a platform unless you opted to check in the contents of the "platforms" folder which is not recommended. However, using the platform command can cause your build to fail under certain circumstances.

  3. Generating an iOS App Store Package. A common issue that can arrise is keychain permission errors during app signing that result in strange "User interaction not allowed" errors. In addition, older versions of Cordova do not automatically generate the required ".ipa" and instead simply generate a ".app" folder structure. An ipa can be generated from the command line quite easily but build servers like Jenkins require an extra step.

  4. Visual Studio Specific Features

    1. Supporting res/native. The "res/native" folder in Visual Studio projects provides a useful way to update native project build artifacts without having to check in the platforms folder. It is not currently a base Cordova CLI feature.
    2. Supporting Visual Studio specific Windows packaging settings. Recent versions of Cordova support a "build.json" file that allows developers to specify Windows signing related features. However, for legacy purposes Visual Studio used a set of non-standard config.xml elements to store mandatory fields for store submission.

    Fortunatley you can resolve these issues using the Cordova CI Support Plugin. In addition, the Cordova Hooks example in the Cordova Samples GitHub repository includes a an example of adding res/native via something called a "Hook".

Building with Multiple Versions of the Cordova CLI

The Cordova CLI is a standard Node.js npm package and thus can be installed either globally or locally. The trick, then, is to use a local installation of the Cordova CLI rather than a global one. There are two different methods that you can use to install Cordova locally: at the project level or in a global cache.

Project Level

Installing and using the correct version of the Cordova CLI at the project level is simple thanks to something called package.json. Here is the general approach:

  1. Create a package.json file in the root of your Cordova project.
  2. Add the following json to the file where "6.0.0" is the version of the Cordova CLI you intend to use:

            "devDependencies": {
                "cordova": "6.0.0"
  3. Check this into source control with your project.

  4. Configure your build system to run the following command as its first task. This will then install the correct version of the CLI in a new "node_modules" folder under your project.

    npm install
  5. When executing a Cordova CLI command for your build task, you can then use the following commands:






    ./node_modules/cordova/bin/cordova platform add android

The downside of this method is that you will end up installing the Cordova CLI each time you execute a "clean" build which will slow down your build times particularly on Windows as the CLI consists of around 25mb of small files.

Global Cache

To avoid re-installing each time, you can take advantage of Visual Studio's taco.json file and a Node.js script to perform the installation in a specific location that you then use to execute Cordova commands.

  1. Add an environment variable to your system (or build) called CORDOVA_CACHE pointing to where you want to create "cache" of the different versions of the Cordova CLI used to build your projects.

  2. Add this node.js script to your project and call it "setup-cordova.js":

    var fs = require("fs"),
        path = require("path"),
        exec = require("child_process").exec;
    // Load taco.json
    var taco = require("./taco.json");
    var cordovaVersion = taco["cordova-cli"];
    // Check if Cordova is already present in the cache, install it if not
    var cordovaModulePath = path.resolve(process.env["CORDOVA_CACHE"], cordovaVersion);
    if (!fs.existsSync(cordovaModulePath)) {
        fs.mkdirSync(path.join(cordovaModulePath, "node_modules"));
        console.log("Installing Cordova " + cordovaVersion + ".");
        exec("npm install cordova@" + cordovaVersion, { cwd: cordovaModulePath }, function (err, stdout, stderr) {
            if (stderr) {
            if (err) {
            console.log("Cordova " + cordovaVersion + " installed at " + cordovaModulePath);
    } else {
        console.log("Cordova " + cordovaVersion + " already installed at " + cordovaModulePath);
    // Create shell scripts
    if (process.platform == "darwin") {
        // OSX
        fs.writeFileSync("", "#!/bin/sh\n" + path.join(cordovaModulePath, "node_modules", "cordova", "bin", "cordova") + " $@", "utf8");
        fs.chmodSync("", "0777")
    } else {
        // Windows
        fs.writeFileSync("cordova.cmd", "@" + path.join(cordovaModulePath, "node_modules", "cordova", "bin", "cordova") + " %*", "utf8");
  3. In your team / CI build definition or script, add a build task to execute "node setup-cordova.js" from your project root

  4. Use "./" (OSX) or "cordova.cmd" (Windows) to run additional Cordova commands

A variation of this method is used by **Visual Studio, the TACO CLI, the Visual Studio Team Services Extension for Cordova, and the taco-team-build Node module** referenced in the Gulp and Jenkins tutorials.

Adding Platforms

Adding platforms in Cordova is quite simple using the "cordova platform" command. Ex:

cordova platform add android

However, there are a couple of common problems when executing this command that you could run into.

  1. Platform Download Messages Result in Build Failures. Where things can get a bit tricky is that Node.js emits warnings to "Standard Error." The issue is that "platform add" command can result in warnings being reported when the CLI is downloading a version of a given Cordova platform for the first time. This is not an error, but some build systems will assume anything sent to standard error means a build failure occurred.

    Many CI systems provide a "continue on error" option that you can select to get around this particular problem or you can pipe standard error to standard out if you'd prefer.

    cordova platform add ios 2>&1
  2. Errors During Incremental Builds. If you are doing an incremental build and the platform you are building has already been added, the resulting exit code will be non-zero and may be interpreted as a build failure. If your build system supports a "continue on error" option for a given task, you can simply select that.

    However, a more robust solution is to simply conditionally call "platform add" if the appropriate folder in the platforms folder in your project is not found. In the scripts below replace "cordova" with the appropriate command from the "Building with Multiple Versions of the Cordova CLI" section above.


    IF NOT EXIST platforms/android CALL cordova platform add android


    if [ ! -d "platforms/android" ]; then cordova platform add android; fi;

Generating an iOS App Store Package

Solving iOS Keychain Permission Errors

When building for iOS you may run itno permissions issues when using a build server like Jenkins because the build agent does not have permissions to access the login keychain were your installed signing certificates are located. In this case, the codesign utlity then attempts to pop-up a dialog where you enter the appropriate password but typically this won't be possible since you are not logged in interactivley. You will then see a very cryptic User interaction not allowed error.

The Visual Studio Team Services Extension for Cordova has some useful features designed to avoid this problem entirely such as supporting referencing a P12 certifificate file directly in your build definition. In other cases you'll need to unlock the login keychain before you build and package your Cordova app.

Most build servers provide a way to inject secure environment variables before executing build tasks. In Jenkins this is accomplished by using the "Environment Injector Plugin." By then setting a KEYCHAIN_PWD environment variable you can add the following command to your build.

security unlock-keychain -p ${KEYCHAIN_PWD} ${HOME}/Library/Keychains/login.keychain

To then build and package your iOS app, you can run the following commands:

security unlock-keychain -p ${KEYCHAIN_PWD} ${HOME}/Library/Keychains/login.keychain
cordova build ios --device --release
xcrun -v -sdk iphoneos PackageApplication "${WORKSPACE}/platforms/ios/build/device/My Cordova" -o "${WORKSPACE}/platforms/ios/build/device/My Cordova App.ipa"

Generating an "ipa" on Old Versions of Cordova

In order to distribute your iOS application you will need to generate an "iOS App Store Package" or "ipa" file. These files can be imported into iTunes or enterprise app stores in addition to being distributed to the Apple App Store via the Application Loader. Recent versions of the Cordova CLI support a "build.json" file that can be used to specify signing information and will automatically generate an ipa for you. Older versions of Cordova do not support this feature a Xcode command line tool needs to be used instead. Ex:

xcrun -v -sdk iphoneos PackageApplication -o dest.ipa

In Cordova projects, the source ".app" package can be found in the platforms/ios/build/device folder in your project after a successful Cordova "device" build. As an important detail, "" and "dest.ipa" above should be absolute paths and the name of the package is taken from the "Display Name" (widget/@name) in config.xml which may not match your project folder name. Ex:

xcrun -v -sdk iphoneos PackageApplication "/Users/cdvusr/Documents/cordova/myapp/platforms/ios/build/device/My Cordova" -o "/Users/cordova/Documents/cordova/myapp/platforms/ios/build/device/My Cordova App.ipa"

Each build system has a different mechanisms in place for passing the absolute path of the project to shell scripts, but typically it involves the use of an environment variable. For example, in Jenkins you can use the following:

xcrun -v -sdk iphoneos PackageApplication "${WORKSPACE}/platforms/ios/build/device/My Cordova" -o "${WORKSPACE}/platforms/ios/build/device/My Cordova App.ipa"

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